The rising of 1745–1746 against the Hanoverian government of Britain was the last military manifestation of Jacobitism. This movement supported a Stuart restoration following the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688, in which James II was deposed and replaced by William III. Unsuccessful Jacobite risings and abortive French and Spanish invasion attempts had occurred in 1689–1690, 1715, and 1719. Invasions and rebellions had also been planned but abandoned in 1708 and 1744–1745. Following this last cancellation by the French, Charles Edward Stuart, grandson of James II, decided to win back the throne without foreign support.