An electrochemical biosensor for progesterone in cow's milk was developed and used in a competitive immunoassay by Hart et al. (1977, Studies towards a disposable screen printed amperometric biosensor for progesterone, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 12, 1113-1121). The sensor was fabricated by depositing anti-progesterone monoclonal antibody (mAb) onto screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) which were coated with rabbit anti-sheep IgG (rIgG). This sensor was operated following the steps of competitive binding between samples and conjugate (alkaline-phosphatase-labelled progesterone) for the immobilised mAb sites and measurementsof an amperometric signal in the presence of p-nitrophenylphosphate using either colorimetric assays or cyclic voltammetry. The hook effect of the progesterone biosensor was found in the concentration range of milk progesterone between 0 and 5 ng/ml when the sensor was fabricated using a loading of 25ng rIgG per electrode of a diameter of 3 mm and a 1/50 dilution of mAb. A computer model has been developed in this study to simulate the operation of this progesterone biosensor with consideration of the fabrication processes. This paper presents the results of validating the computer model and the model has predicted the hook effect as observed in tests. The model thus reveals that the hook effect is determined by the total number of binding sites available and the rates of labelled and unlabelled progesterone diffusing towards the sensor surface and the binding rates.
Xu, Y. F.; Velasco-Garcia, M. and Mottram, T. T. (2005). Quantitative analysis of the response of an electrochemical biosensor for progesterone in milk. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 20(10) pp. 2061–2070.