[Everything 'Tricky Sam' Joe Nanton did] was up the top of the horn. Luckily we had Bubber Miley as his plunger mate. Tricky had been using the plunger before, and he had all those sounds, but they were a little too sophisticated to be appreciated by the average listener who would walk into a jam session. By sophisticated, I mean that he had had to devise a technique, because those sounds had to be precise. There were certain distances the plunger had to be away from the mute inside the bell, and there was the matter of when you squeezed it. There were certain tones and a certain pitch that were relevant���
He [played]��� a very highly personalized form of his West Indian heritage. When a guy comes here from the West Indies and is asked to play some jazz, he plays what he thinks it is, or what comes from his applying himself to the idiom. Tricky and his people were deep in the West Indian legacy and the Marcus Garvey movement. A whole strain of West Indian musicians came up who made contributions to the so-called jazz scene, and they were all virtually descended from the true African scene.